The United States owes reparations for slavery. That is the controversial conclusion that the Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent. They’re a group that works under the Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights. They’re all accomplished international law and human rights experts. Some of their main duties include:
- Studying the problems experienced by people of African descent in diaspora
- Proposing measure to ensure these people enjoy swift and full access to justice systems
- Addressing all issues concerning their well-being as is defined in the ‘Durban Declaration.’
To read the full list of duties, visit this site for more information: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Racism/WGAfricanDescent/
They outlined in their annual report to the committee that America’s dark past has continued to shape the experiences of African Americans. Here’s a table to help you visualize the time frame:
First recorded Africans brought to Jamestown, Virginia
Importation of slaves from Africa became illegal. Slavery STILL existed at this point.
Slavery north of the Missouri river made illegal.
Further evasion by Congress of the problem of slavery . “Compromise of 1850.”
The famous Dred Scott Supreme Court case that established that slaves were not citizens.
Slaves became free.
The Black Codes: a series of discriminatory laws aimed at undermining free blacks. Slavery made illegal nation-wide by 13th amendment.
KKK established in Tennessee
Pre-war land owners received amnesty
Reconstruction period: the aim was to ensure that the rights of former slaves were safeguard, by supervising former slave state laws.
The fourteenth amendment ratified, which classified former slaves as citizens
Black men granted right to vote
Black people allowed to fight alongside white people in wars (Military became integrated)
Segregation made illegal by Supreme Court; armed military needed to enforce decision
Voting rights act passed to eliminate discrimination against Black voters
Four police offers acquitted after a recorded beating of a Black man, Rodney King.
Note: For a few years immediately after reconstruction, there was a rise in Black government officials.
Note: Keep in mind that between the mid 1860’s and the mid-late 1960’s African Americans were systematically discriminated against. Even though slavery was officially abolished in 1863, and some laws were passed to ease the suffering of former slaves, there was no rehabilitation program that could smoothly transition them into society. Even so, African Americans were able to progress.
Immediately after slavery was made illegal, the Black community progressed a lot. Small communities were created, businesses flourished, and colleges were created. They were meant to be a haven away from the harshness of White supremacy.
Unfortunately, these communities were not kept safe. Between the 1860’s and the 1960’s, the racist White majority that made up most of the United States ensured that the Black community never felt truly safe. They ensured that they would never feel at home in this country that their ancestors robbed. The silent White majority sat back and watched.
The story of being Black in America could be summed up by telling you that Blackness is a memory. It’s a memory of the harshness, the inhumane cruelty that your mother’s grandmother undoubtedly went through. It’s the memory of the hard life your grandmother endured. It’s the memory of your own mother saying, “Stay calm. They won’t hurt you.”
The story of being Black in America could be summed up by explaining the feeling. The first time you felt it you couldn’t be more than 8 years old. It was the first time you saw disgust, hatred, concern, even. The disgust because you couldn’t understand the difference between you and a classmate with skin several tones lighter than yours. Hatred, because you took something you liked. It didn’t belong to you. You didn’t know any better, but they didn’t care. Concern, because you live in a neighborhood that they’re afraid to go to, but you’re fed well and people look out for each other.
Police brutality in America is new? “No way,” says the Black community. It’s been happening since my great grandmother was freed from slavery.
So, when the United Nations states that the United States of America owes reparations, why is the first thing people say, “slavery was years ago. Move on”? No one says that to victims of the Holocaust, which happened between 1941 and 1945.
Consult the timeline.
My grandfather would not have been able to join the Military during that time. My grandparents were being systematically prevented from exercising their rights as citizens.
My Uncles would not have been able to go to a primary school with White children.
My parents were born during the end of the civil rights movement–a movement created because Black people wanted peace–the peace to live as American citizens, without the fear of terrorism.
Ask yourself, has that been achieved? If so, by how much? If not, what can be done?
In loving memory of all minority victims of police brutality and white terror.